Ancient Fish In Scotland Invented Sexual Intercourse Millions Of Years Ago: Study


An ancient species of fish, which existed in Scotland about 385 million years ago, invented sexual intercourse, according to a new study that said it is “one of the biggest discoveries in the evolutionary history of sexual reproduction.” The ancient fish, which are believed to be the earliest vertebrate ancestors of humans, also existed in parts of Estonia and China.

The prehistoric armored fish, called “placoderms,” used to switch their sexual practices from internal to external fertilization, an act previously thought to be evolutionarily unlikely. The scientists showed in the study, published in the Journal Nature on Monday, that males of the “Microbrachius dicki,” which belonged to the antiarch group of placoderms, developed bony L-shaped genital limbs called claspers to transfer sperm to females.

“It was previously thought that reproduction spawned externally in water, and much later down the track in the history of vertebrate evolution,” John Long, a professor at Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia, and the study’s lead author, said in a statement. “Basically it’s the first branch off the evolutionary tree where these reproductive strategies started.”

According to the scientists, the oldest bony fishes that follow placoderms in the evolutionary tree did not show evidence of internal fertilization, suggesting that these early fish must have lost the internal fertilization method before some of their successors re-invented organs with a similar function, Nature reported.

The new study is also expected to make a significant contribution to an ongoing debate about placoderms’ place in evolutionary history. According to scientists, other vertebrates likely shared a common ancestor with this ancient group of fish, which was considered to be an “evolutionary dead end.”

“Placoderms were once thought to be a dead-end group with no live relatives but recent studies show that our own evolution is deeply rooted in placoderms… Now, we reveal they gave us the intimate act of sexual intercourse as well,” Long said.


We complain when celebrities don’t speak up for our causes, but then we don’t defend them when they do…


is not ebola that will kill us, it’s ebola that they’ll put it on


We complain when celebrities don’t speak up for our causes, but then we don’t defend them when they do…


is not ebola that will kill us, it’s ebola that they’ll put it on

(via 3rdeyera)


Rosetta Could Change Science Forever | Space News

Human beings around the world may be witnessing one of the most significant dramas in the modern history of the space sciences. The ESA’s Rosetta mission to the comet 67P has shattered the theoretical predictions of standard comet science. For many decades, we were told that comets are dirty snowballs, which formed billions of years ago, tracing back to the solar system’s origins. In contrast, the electric universe has stated for decades that comets, meteors and asteroids are materials excavated electrically from planetary surfaces. Wal Thornhill explains that the Rosetta mission has already provided a stunning confirmation of the electric comet theory.

Couple Jailed for Raising Chickens



The justification given by the aggressors was that the couple was guilty of the heinous action of “junk and blight.”

They want to control our food. Keeping chickens should not get you arrested. This is hardly the first instance of something like this happening. This is the outcome of a legislative move to criminalize backyard farms and small, residential farming operations…

Your right to use your own property to create sustenance is going the way of the right to forage, hunt, make liquor, camp, fish, coppice, smoke, and swap seeds without state interference; corporations retain rights to use natural resources and sell them to you, but heaven forbid you want to make a little moonshine, pick some wild mushrooms, or gather firewood. Next thing we know the health department will have to come for an inspection if you want to grow and eat your own lettuce. But it’s for your own good!

Making it as difficult as possible for people to create wealth for themselves creates poverty.

#food politics #chickens #animal husbandry #the commons

(via mashkwi)